International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal focuses on:</p> <p>- Energy System analysis of the transition to sustainable energy systems. This including theories, methodologies, data handling and software tools as well as specific scenarios, models and analyses at local, regional, country and global level.</p> <p>- Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses of the transition to sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>- Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>IJSEPM is approved by the Norwegian bibliometric&nbsp;<a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a>&nbsp;as well as its Danish counterpart&nbsp;<a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="">DataCite</a></p> Aalborg University Press en-US International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2246-2929 <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Special Issue: Tools, technologies and systems integration for the Smart and Sustainable Cities to come <p>Entire volume in one collated pdf file</p> Poul Alberg Østergaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 24 Title Page <p>Title page</p> Poul Alberg Østergaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3515 Tools, technologies and systems integration for the Smart and Sustainable Cities to come <div>This paper introduces contemporary research on smart cities from the special issue of the&nbsp;International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management organised in conjunction&nbsp;with the EERA Joint Programme on Smart Cities. The topic -&nbsp;Tools, technologies and systems&nbsp;integration for the Smart and Sustainable Cities to come&nbsp;– highlights the variety of research&nbsp;within this field. From a starting point in a discussion on smart cities and smart energy systems,&nbsp;the paper goes on to describe new research findings within the wider area of smart cities and&nbsp;smart energy systems starting with cases of transition, moving on to data requirements and data</div> <div>generation for designing transitions and ending with theories and methodologies for designing&nbsp;transitions</div> Poul Alberg Østergaard Paola Clerici Maestosi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-21 2019-10-21 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3405 European Union funding Research Development and Innovation projects on Smart Cities. <p>European cities currently host 72% of the European population, which probably will rise to 80% by 2050.</p> <p>European Union, Member States, National and Regions Authorities and different type of stakeholders have worked - and keep on doing - together to promote a sustainable urban development and to adapt policies to the needs of cities, thus make visible improvements to the daily lives of people.</p> <p>According to this approach, many Member States decided to pool resources at european level, achieving more than by acting alone. It is thanks to the coordinated approach of European Union and Member State that Research Development &amp; Innovation boost smart cities and smart specialization strategies as two novelties that have been adopted by policymakers.</p> Paolo Civiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-21 2019-10-21 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3493 Modelling the future low-carbon energy systems - case study of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark <p>In the light of insufficient climate policy on the global and national scale, ambitious cities are frontrunners of the climate action. Among them is Copenhagen, Denmark, aiming to achieve a CO<sub>2</sub>-neutral energy system in 2025. Reaching this goal requires, among other, changes in energy generation portfolio, which can be assessed using energy systems modelling. The aim of this study is to construct and evaluate four scenarios for sustainable electricity and heat supply of Greater Copenhagen and the new development project Nordhavn, deciding on the least expensive and least polluting option from a socio-economic perspective. Using the energy system model Balmorel, the energy scenarios are assessed and compared focusing on heat and electricity price and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. Sensitivity analyses are conducted considering changes in coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pumps and discount rate. The results show that from the socio-economic perspective, expanding district heating to Nordhavn is a promising solution. In case the heating demand in the Nordhavn area is supplied by a local source, power-to-heat technologies are chosen. Despite the narrow geographical focus, the challenges discussed in this paper and the method developed are relevant for other urban areas in Europe that aspire to have sustainable energy systems.</p> Sara Ben Amer Rasmus Bramstoft Olexandr Balyk Per Sieverts Nielsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3356 Low temperature district heating networks for complete energy needs fulfillment <p>In order to reduce fossil fuels consumption and pollutant emissions, high contribution is given by district heating. In particular, the integration with renewable energy may lead to a significant increase in energy conversion efficiency and energy saving. Further benefits can be achieved with low temperature district heating, reducing the thermal dissipations through the network and promoting the exploitation of low enthalpy heat sources.</p> <p>The aim of the paper is the analysis of the potential related to the conversion of existing district heating networks, to increase the exploitation of renewable sources and eliminate pollutant emissions in the city areas. Further aim, in this context, is the optimization – from both energy production and operation management viewpoints – of a low temperature district heating network for the fulfillment of the connected users’ energy needs. To this respect, a traditional network with a fossil fuel driven thermal production plant has been considered and compared with a low temperature district heating scenario, including geothermal heat pumps, photovoltaic panels and absorption chillers. These scenarios have been analyzed and optimized with an in-house developed software, allowing to demonstrate the reduction of primary energy consumption and CO<sub>2</sub> pollutant emissions achievable with low temperature networks. In addition, a preliminary economic evaluation has been carried out to compare the proposed solution with traditional district heating.</p> Maria Alessandra Ancona Michele Bianchi Lisa Branchini Andrea De Pascale Francesco Melino Antonio Peretto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3340 Simulation of an alternative energy system for district heating company in the light of changes in regulations of the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. <p>At the present time Poland is going through a lot of changes, also from the energy generation and energy law point of view. In the nearest future the polish energy industry, according to the EU 2020 Climate and Energy Package, will have to significantly modernize most of its power plants. Dynamically changing situation results in higher demand for different, both energy and economy, analyses helping with setting the frames for future functioning of power engineering companies.One of the polish power companies, PEC Legionowo, is reshaping its infrastructure to meet the new requirements and from this particular company authors are using data for test case. The first conceptual work related to the development of the PEC Legionowo energy system is underway in terms of increasing its energy efficiency and reducing harmful exhaust emissions. Due to the need of significantly reducing exhaust emissions by 2022, PEC Legionowo is seriously considering the reduction of the heat generative power from coal-fired boilers. Among others the resulting energy gap is planned to be covered by installing high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) systems.The article analyzes and verifies the model of an existing CHP plant and checks the modernization possibilities of the existing installation in terms of reducing the emission of harmful gases to the atmosphere. The new installation of gas boilers designed to replace coal-fired boilers is checked to meet the new emission requirements, while maintaining the demand for heat and electricity.For the modelling a test case the combined techno-economic optimization and analysis software energyPRO is used. The software optimizes the operation of the modelled system in accordance to all input conditions such as generation and economic data obtained from a functioning heat and power plant in polish industry.The results show the quantitative and economic difference related to the introduced changes in the heat and power plant system. The analysis also focuses on the size of the investment outlay and the return time of the project.</p> Maciej Widzinski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3354 Interconnection of the electricity and heating sectors to support the energy transition in cities <p>The electricity, heating, and transport sectors in urban areas all have to contribute to meeting stringent climate targets. Cities will face a transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources, with electricity acting as a cross-sectorial energy carrier. Consequently, the electricity demand of cities is expected to rise, in a situation that will be exacerbated by ongoing urbanisation and city growth. As the supply of electricity to cities is limited by transmission capacity from the national grid, city planning requires a detailed understanding of the options available for: decentralised electricity generation; synergies between the heating and electricity sectors; and flexibility through energy storage technologies.</p> <p>This work proposes an optimisation model that interconnects the electricity, heat, and transport sectors in cities. We analyse the investments in and operation of an urban energy system, using the City of Gothenburg as an example. We find that the availability of electricity from local solar PV together with thermal storage technologies increase the value of using power-to-heat technologies, such as heat pumps. High biomass prices together with strict climate targets enhance the importance of electricity in the district heating sector. At low biomass prices, CHP units fired by biomass are utilized over the whole model year. The model will be developed further in future studies, to include details on electric vehicle charging and other energy carriers.</p> Verena Heinisch Lisa Göransson Mikael Odenberger Filip Johansson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3328 How can Urban Manufacturing contribute to a more sustainable energy system in cities? <p>The paper explores future opportunities as well as challenges arising from urban manufacturing (UM) regarding the design of sustainable energy systems for cities. Global trends affect the type of production (e.g. Industry 4.0) as well as the industrial structure (e.g. convergence of services and production) of UM in cities. This causes new requirements but also new options for the urban energy system. The study presented in this paper examines this area of tension and explores not only the potentials of waste heat use, but also additional electricity demand trough steadily advancing digitalisation.</p> <p>The study illustrates, that over the next few years it will be key to improve the interfaces between actors and sectors: between companies ("energy communities"), between industry and grid/energy supply company/neighbouring settlement areas and between the sectors heat-electricity-gas-mobility through e.g. power-to-x and possible uses of hydrogen. The paper concludes with a concept for integrating urban manufacturing optimally in the urban energy system for a sustainable energy transition in the future.</p> Tanja Tötzer Romana Stollnberger Roland Krebs Mara Haas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3347 Sustainable Energy Management: Are Tourism SMEs in the South Baltic Region ready? <p>As a key aspect of tourism competitiveness, sustainability plays an important role in profiling Europe as a tourism destination in key source markets. As in any other region, comprehensive engagement of key stakeholders plays an essential component in developing Europe as a sustainable tourist destination. This type of engagement requires a cross-border collaboration to establish a common region identity as a means of managing complex processes of globalization. The initial requirement for such an interaction is to identify appropriate relevant stakeholders for European sustainable tourism and to facilitate cross-border dialogue and interactions.</p> <p>In the field of energy, it is important to take into consideration energy sustainability and energy efficiency. Energy effectiveness can be described as the interaction between energy produced and energy induced/invested. Sustainable energy can be assessed from the perspective of consumption/production or the impact it has on the environment and society.</p> <p>This study focuses on sustainable energy management in the Polish coastal area, which is a part of the South Baltic region. The region has exceptional potential for becoming a forerunner in achieving sustainable tourism goals of the EU. Utilizing the “sustainable energy theory”, the purpose of this research is to examine energy management problems with regard to sustainable development for Polish tourism SMEs in the South Baltic region.</p> Marta Jaroszewska Patryk Chaja Anna Dziadkiewicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3342 Sharing Cities: from vision to reality. A people, place and platform approach to implement Milan's Smart City strategy <p>Transforming Milan in a smart city is a strategic objective and political priority of the Municipality, which has taken up a variety of projects and experiments with the aim to transform the main suburbs of the city in smart areas. This paper presents Milan’s demonstration of a smart district allowed by the EU funded project “Sharing Cities”, aimed at creating a "smart" district with "near-zero" emissions in three different “lighthouse” cities, London, Lisbon, and Milan. The paper describes the first outcomes of such project in Milan, obtained through a variety of tools and actions based on a <em>People, place and platform approach</em>, aimed at involving the different stakeholders and applying solutions to foster innovation processes instrumental to the implementation of a smart city urban agenda.</p> Elisa Cassinadri Elisa Gambarini Roberto Nocerino Lucia Scopelliti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3336 Solutions and services for smart sustainable district: an innovative approach in KPI to support transition. <p><em>Here it will be presented the results of the research “SCC solutions for Positive Energy Districts - RdS / PAR2018 / 041”, a collaborative project between Sapienza University of Rome - PDTA Dept. and ENEA Energy Technology Dept. – Sustainable Energy Network. The broader purpose of the research has been to design a set of strategies to facilitate built environment transition to optimized urban models such as Smart Energy District. The research consider as starting point the urban vision in SET-Plan on Action 3.2 "Smart Cities and Communities" which support planning, deployment and replication of 100 Positive Energy District by 2025, with the aim to promote innovative research on models, methodologies planning tools and technology solutions for the short-medium term implementation.</em></p> <p><em>The approach and methodology which support the research projects lays on an operational framework set up to identify gaps and commonalities for urban services implementation and to support life improvements for citizens, consumers / prosumers.</em></p> <p><em>Main output of this research project is a framework to facilitate a synthetic evaluation on positioning and improvements for each SCC solutions which has been considered in the study each referring to engagement phase (planning, design, construction, management) and engagement scale (functional unit, building, blocks of building, infrastructures, environment). Furthermore, the synoptic tool improves the identification of strategies and stakeholders’ commitment to promote Smart Urban District or PEDs transition.</em></p> Marilisa Cellurale Carola Clemente Paola Clerici Maestosi Paolo Civiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-17 2019-10-17 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3350 Spatial aggregation and visualisation of urban heat demand using graph theory. <p>Because of the physical properties of heat energy, information about the spatial pattern of building heat demand is important for designing climate protection measures in the heating sector (efficiency improvements and renewable energy integration). Many cities in Germany currently prepare ‘heat demand cadastres’ – thematic maps, depicting building heat demand. The growing trend towards open data points into the direction of making these cadastres public, so that different actors can make use of them. However, making such data public may violate the legal requirement of protecting private data. We present a way of tackling this problem with an approach for the aggregation of spatially represented heat demand. Using an algorithm based on graph theory, we group buildings such that the tracing of energetic characteristics and behaviour to individuals is rendered unfeasible. Our method also allows additional constraints to be introduced, for example, aggregating with respect to plot boundaries. We discuss how the building groups can be visualised in a map by presenting a method of generating customised geometries for each group. Finally, we present a visualisation of both specific heat demand (in kWh/(m<sup>2</sup>*a)) and total heat demand (in kWh/a) in one and the same map. This aids the analysis of more complex questions involving energy efficiency and heat supply.</p> Ivan Dochev Hannes Seller Irene Peters ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3346 Supporting tool for multi-scale energy planning through procedures of data enrichment <p>Considering the challenge of evaluation of the urban environment from the energy point of view, there is plenty of room to improve the resources currently managed by users, enterprises and public institutions. The goal is to create a tool that supports in the decision making in the energy planning process in specific areas by automatically estimating the energy demand and consumption of buildings using public data and representing the results in a geo-referenced way. The tool will provide a better understanding of what the current status of the buildings is, providing these stakeholders with a larger quantity of useful data about the city environment, including not only the geometric information present in cadastre repositories, but also the data collected from the Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs).</p> <p>In this case, the data from the cadastre repository are combined with the EPCs for each province, with data about the demanded and consumed energy. The objective is to generate a set of buildings typologies for each province with estimated values for the demand and consumption for each building type. These typologies could be used to generate a map with the energetic values for any municipality of this province.</p> <p>These results can be injected into GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools that could show these data in order to evaluate the energy demand/consumption of the municipality easing the energy planning decision-making process, or even into databases for further uses.</p> Francisco Javier Miguel Gema Hernández-Moral Victor Ivan Serna-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3345 Decision Support System for smart urban management: resilience against natural phenomena and aerial environmental assessment <p>A new concept of Decision Support System (DSS) is presented. It is able to account for and support all phases of the risk analysis process: event forecast, prediction of reliable and accurate damage scenarios, estimate of their impact on Critical Infrastructures (CI), estimate of the possible consequences. It also provides an estimate of the consequences in terms of service degradation and of impact on citizens, on urban area and on production activities, essential for the mitigation of the adverse events. It can be used in two different modes, either in an operational mode (on a 24/7 basis) or in a simulation mode to produce risk analysis, setting up synthetic natural hazards and assessing the resulting chain of events (damages, impacts and consequences). Among the various possible external data sources an aerial, drone based one is presented. The system may capture both thermal and visual images of CI, processing them into 3D models or collect chemical pollutants concentrations for the monitoring of dangerous air quality due to catastrophic events such as volcano eruptions or large fires. The obtained models and the chemical data can be easily displayed within the framework of the DSS.</p> Sergio Taraglio Stefano Chiesa Luigi La Porta Maurizio Pollino Marco Verdecchia Barbara Tomassetti Valentina Colaiuda Annalia Lombardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3338 Sustainable Energy Planning as a co-creative governance challenge. Lessons from the Zero Village Bergen <p><em>Sustainable energy transition implies different, but interlinked strategies, technologies and policy interventions, implying a complex array of overlapping systems that are shaped by the intervention of diverse actors. The formal mechanisms of transition to sustainability are ill equipped to address and conform with the political and power dimensions. Furthermore, there is no determined blueprint for sustainability transitions and the existing governance systems hitherto have been inefficient and implicated in unsustainability. This paper argues that energy transition requires conceptualization of co-creative governance, and the dynamic interplays between power relations in the face of conflict of interests. Thereby, this paper goes beyond the traditional division of governance network between private, public and academia to investigate the political structure underpinning the functionality of governance. To assess how sustainable energy transitions can be materialized, the aim is to understand how different multilevel governance systems deal with the competing interests, asymmetrical power and mobilization of resources for goal achievement in the case of Zero Village Bergen. It describes how the latent conflict between different involved actors’ interests has led to prolongation, recurring controversies, stagnation, and moments of adaptation. The purpose is to shed light on political and institutional challenges that are common to other sustainable transition initiatives. The method used is semi-structured interviews with private and public actors. The contribution is to theory building in sustainable energy planning from a governance lens.</em></p> savis Gohari Stig Larssæther ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3353 Energy sustainability and social empowerment: the case of Centocelle smart community co-creation <p>Currently, one of Italy’s major institutional challenges in the field of integrated sustainability is to further develop the local governance capacities in order to facilitate the energy transition; this aspect, which, up to now, had to answer for the poor adoption of technologies, can be solved through the socio-environmental-energy nexus, through open innovation processes and participatory approach.</p> <p>This paper investigates a series of technological, social, economic and community empowering interventions on the Centocelle district of Rome; interventions such as social-web, smart labs, living labs, circular economy practices symbiotically work to exploit the socio-environmental-energy nexus. The research focuses both on the model created and on how all the different components work together in order to let the social become the projection of the process of energetic, environmental and economic sustainability.</p> <p>New social organizations, such as the Community Cooperative of Centocelle neighborhood, are going to perform a new kind of governance supporting and validating a new community system.&nbsp;</p> Claudia Meloni Francesca Cappellaro Roberta Chiarini Claudia Snels ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-11 2019-10-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3339 Experimental demonstration of a Smart Homes Network in Rome <p>According to the European Strategy Energy Technology (SET) Plan, the resident-user engagement into the national energy strategy is pivotal to the project as it is considered to be one of the most important challenges. The Italian Minister of Economic Development and ENEA have entered into a Programme Agreement for the execution of the research and development lines of General Interest for the National Electricity System. In particular, as part of the “Development of an integrated model of the Urban Smart District” a Smart Home network experimentation has been carried out in the Centocelle district of Rome.</p> <p>This project aims to develop a replicable model able to monitor energy consumption, the degree of comfort and safety in residential buildings and to transmit raw data to a higher level ICT platform where they are analysed and aggregated to provide the user and the community with a series of constructive and valuable feedback that can shed light on their usage patterns and what ought to be improved to increase their energy awareness. The heart of the system is the Energy Box (EB) that allows the control of the devices (sensors and actuators) and transforms each and every home into an active node of a smart network, which allows the user to share data and information with the outside world, as to increase the dwellings' sense of participation and belonging to the community by providing them with useful tools for new forms of interaction. In perspective, the system architecture developed in the project will also be able to transform each user from a simple consumer into an active participant in the energy market, allowing individual residences to control demand (demand-side management). Finally, the brand-new home digital infrastructure has paved the way to a series of additional services, such as assisted living and home security.</p> Sabrina Romano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3335 Virtual Round Table on Innovation for Smart and Sustainable Cities <p>A Dialogue between Paola Clerici Maestosi and Giovanni Vetritto (IT), Olga Kordas (SE), Johhanes Brezet (NL/DK) and Jonas Bylund (SE)</p> Paola Clerici Maestosi Peter Berkowitz Han Brezet Jonas Bylund Giovanni Vetritto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3502